domingo, 15 de maio de 2011

Marcadores discursivos

Marcadores discursivos, frequentemente representados por conjunções, são termos utilizados para ligar orações e idéias, indicando como elas se relacionam. Através desses elementos de ligação, os autores mostram com maior clareza a organização de suas idéias. Eles constituem, portanto, importante recurso de coesão textual.

Os marcadores discursivos podem sinalizar: adição, contraste, causal/conseqüência, tempo, seqüência cronológica, etc. Observe, nos quadros a seguir, alguns exemplos de marcadores discursivos bastante utilizados na língua inglesa.

ADIÇÃO
And - e
Futhermore,In addition, Moreover, Besides, - além disso,
in addition to.../ as well as… - além de…
Also; too/as well - também
both…and - tanto…quanto
not only…but also - não apenas…mas também

Exemplos:
There’s still a tendency to see the issues in black and white.
The source of the information is irrelevant. Moreover, the information need not be confidential.
John, Jack and Sam are coming as well as our friends from Boston.
Peter is a photographer and also writes books.
She is a valued colleague and a great friend too/as well.
Sometimes it is not only wise to listen to your parents but also interesting.

CONTRASTE

but - mas
However, - Entretanto, /Porém,
Yet, / still, / Nevertheless, Despite / In spite of … - apesar disso/apesar de …
Rather than… instead of… - ao invés de/ em vez de
Although, though - embora
While/whereas - enquanto que/ao passo que
On the one hand, - Por um lado,
On the other hand, - Por outro lado
In contrast (to/with),Unlike...,Differently from… - ao contrário de…

Exemplos:
I’d like to go but I’m too busy.
He’s overweight and bald; yet somehow, he’s incredibly attractive.
Despite all out efforts to save the school, the authorities decided to close it.
She walked home by herself, although she knew that it was dangerous.
On the one hand I’d like a job which pays more, but on the other hand I enjoy the work I’m doing at the moment.
Rather than go straight on to university why not get some work experience first?
He must be about sixty, whereas his wife looks about thirty.
In contrast to Cuiabá, Curitiba has a cold winter.


CAUSA/CONSEQUÊNCIA

so - por isso/assim
Therefore, /Thus, Because of this/that, For this/that reason, Consequently, /As a result, - Portanto
since - visto que/ uma vez que
because - porque/ por causa de
so that - a fim de que

Exemplos:
I was feeling hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.
Progress so far has been very good. Therefore, we are confident that the work will be completed on time.
Since you are unable to answer, perhaps we should ask someone else.
We didn’t enjoy the day because the weather was so awful.


TEMPO / SEQUÊNCIA CRONOLÓGICA

First(ly), /To start with, - Primeiramente
Second(ly), /Third(ly), - Em Segundo/terceiro lugar
Then, /Next, /After that, /Afterwards, - A seguir
Finally, - Finalmente, /Por último
Formerly - no passado
Nowadays/currently - atualmente
Before / prior to - antes de
after… - depois que/de
the former - o/a primeiro/a
The latter - o/a segundo/a
When - quando
While - enquanto

Exemplos:
We had tea, and afterwards we sat in the garden for a while.
The European Union was formerly called the European Community.
Most people nowadays are aware of the importance of a healthy diet.
All the arrangements should be completed prior to your departure.
Zimmerman changed his name after he left Germany.
Of the two suggestions, I prefer the former.
She offered me more money or a car and I chose the latter.
I went there when I was a child.
While I was in Italy, I went to see Alessandro.


EXEMPLIFICAÇÃO

for example, /for instance, /e.g. / i.e. - por exemplo
such as - tal/tais como
like - como

CONCLUSÃO

In short, / In conclusion, /In summary, Finally, /To sum up, - Finalmente, Em resumo

Exemplos:
That sum of money is to cover costs such as travel and accommodation.
To sum up, for a healthy heart you must take regular exercise and stop smoking.


ÊNFASE

As a matter of fact, / In fact, / Actually, / Indeed, - De fato, / Na verdade

COMPARAÇÃO

In the same way, / Likewise, / Similarly, / Correspondingly, - Da mesma forma

Exemplos:
I’ve known Barbara for years. Since we were babies, actually.
The cost of living in the city is more expensive, but salaries are supposed to be correspondingly higher.



Bibliografia

SOUZA, Adriana Grade Fiori ... [et al.] Leitura em língua inglesa: uma abordagem instrumental. São Paulo: Disal, 2005. p.69 a 72.

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